what caused the rebellions in upper canada

Cinema Hotel Recommended for you The results of these rebellions are more black and white in comparison to establishing the causes (Coates, 284). What Caused the rebellion in Upper Canada? Reasons in favor of U.S. Involvement in the Boxer Rebellion: Reasons against U.S. involvement in the Boxer Rebellion: The united state what to gain economic The united states was going to fight battle power not get into another war. These scholars all contribute a different angle to the insurrection in Lower Canada. The two rebellions had similar causes. The Upper Canada Rebellion also ended quite unsuccessful. The Rebellions of 1837/1838 in both Upper Canada and Lower Canada were attempts and attacks at their current government for various reasons. David Creighton again supports the idea of a long played out commerce battle between Agrarian Interests (represented Mackenzie and his followers) and the Executive and Legislative Council (controlled by the British elite) whom held Commercial Interests. C. cvc121. This article left the nation powerless when the British denied the colonies access to West Indian markets. Cultural divisions aggravated the struggle because Anglophone, Protestant people controlled the council and Francophone, Catholic Canadiens were the majority of the Assembly. A grand sweeping theory incorporating 1 or 2 causes does not show the reality of these insurrections. The cause of the American patriots was not seeing much success against the British for a good long while after the start of the war. This will be of extreme to significance to the reader as the aftermath of the rebellion would change the destiny of Canada. Similar to Lower Canada, the troubles in Upper Canada continued throughout 1838 but the decisive acts of the revolution occurred towards the end of 1837. He believes this attitude is evident in the tight grasp the British had on the justice system, in there educational reforms, and assimilation politics (Franices, 265-266). The overall effect of the Durham report was the establishment of separation of power between Britain and the colonial government. Liberal Nationalist scholars support the idea that the rebellion was an attempt to gain independence from Britain (Creighton 323). The Muslim Democrats: A Major Political Economic Problem All Muslim democrats are national Islamists ... All Papers Are For Research And Reference Purposes Only. This along with the economic depression caused two violent outbursts against the British. Government loyalists dispersed the rebels with a few shots, ending Mackenzie's erratic attempt to overthrow the colonial government. However statistical data of this kind is often incomplete and unreliable. Investors who buy land cheap, hold on to it until the price goes up, then sells it at a profit. Political Scientist Daniel Salee studied the revolutionary characteristics of the rebellion believed the patriots were a liberal bourgeois whose demands for economic reform and there denunciation of the corrupt seigniorial system won them the support of the habitants. In both Upper and Lower Canada, there were many struggles for power in the governor appointed council and the elected assembly. With the union of these two colonies into one state Upper Canada had the most to gain. His temperament and conviction led him to the point where he not only advocated armed rebellion against the colonial government but led it. Other sources will include scholarly internet sources, database articles, history text books and online journals. A Scottish-born newspaper publisher named William Lyon Mackenzie was a fierce critic of the Family Compact and led the rebellion. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. A party called the “Reform Party” was seeking a more democratic government but they got most of its support from Americans, not Loyalists. The Essay on Were The Upper And Lower Canada Rebellions in 1837 a Success? The colonial governor would have to choose the executive council from elected member of the majority party in the Legislative. He believed the French people of Lower Canada held a high level of animosity towards the English, and the only solution to the problem was the assimilation of French culture into the soon to be larger British society. Here you can order a professional work. There were key people and sanctions during this evolution, the Crown, the American Revolution, the Loyalists of Upper Canada, the francophones of Lower Canada and the Radicals responsible ... ... Canadians, pp.6-7, 1996) Finally, their overall economic policy states that "Canada should constitute an economic ... the casual Canadian political observer, the ... trade. Now you know what caused the rebellions of 1837 and 1838 and what happened in them. Three days later, there was a small confrontation in Brantford where the insurgents were also put down quickly. Lower Canada Should Adopt a New Style of Government, The Migration Causes Conflict with Canadiens. In Lower Canada, there were two rebellions, one in 1837 and one in 1838, led by Louis Joseph Papineau. Canada as we know it today owes a lot to two rebellions that occurred nearly 200 years ago. -The French Canadians prevented the Assembly from granting money for projects, such as canals, which the English-speaking merchants wanted. The French and the English also fought a lot during elections. The rebellions of 1837-1838 in Upper and Lower Canada constitute one of the most important episodes of this history. The insurrection of Upper Canada, led by William Lyon MacKenzie, was quickly overturned. Durham whom was sympathetic to the merchant class believed the French were a threat to the British commerce in Lower Canada. The Aftermath Of 1837’s Rebellion Brings A New Era! Another reason for the rebellions was a cholera epidemic in Lower Canada brought by the British and Irish. This recommendation was a very significant part in Canadian history as it was the first time in Canadian history the British colonial government attempted to officially assimilate the French people (Bernard, 32). Multiple problems mixed with multiple classes caused for a range of reactions. He believed many farmers had American born parents who instilled a hatred for the British administration (Read 123). Canada evolved into a nation during the 18th and 19th centuries. North American History. In Lower Canada, the rebellions were more widespread in 1837, … One of the outcomes from these rebellions was the restructuring of the Canadian Parliament. Start studying Rebellions of 1837-1838. that was not worth the american live 2. The political, economic, and social development between the ending of the ... goods. This proposal will not offer original information rather a reinterpretation of old knowledge. Upper and Lower Canada were formed by the Constitutional Act of 1791 in response to the wave of United Empire Loyalists moving north from the United States into the French-speaking province of Quebec following the American Revolution (1765-1783) . In Upper Canada there were different reasons why the rebellions occurred. Allan Greer a critic of Ouellet suggests the economic conditions in Quebec don’t support Outleet theories. In Upper Canada the leading elite know as the Family Compact had a stranglehold on the Executive Council which in turn held a profound influence on the colonies governor (Outlett, 271-272). In his report, he recommended that the Unification of the Lower and Upper Canada was of paramount importance and that they should form the Province of Canada, and this would help in the assimilation of the French-Speaking citizens into the culture and the ways of the British Empire. In Lower Canada, The English would gain a slight population majority which would be further reinforced by the arrival of new immigrants. ( Log Out /  Here you can order a professional work. When fights broke out in Lower Canada, British troops stationed in York (Toronto) in Upper Canada were sent as reinforcements. Nearly 100 rebels were also captured. These rebellions sit between the War of 1812 and the more famous rebellions of Louis Riel, but their impact is anything but small. The question driving this research is what caused the insurrections in Upper and Lower Canada during 1837 and 1838. Also, beginning in 1820, the Parti canadien followed by the Parti patriote, both of which were seeking more democratic government, controlled the majority of the seats in the elected assembly. In this article, all of this information will be revealed! After the rebellions, Both Papineau and McKenzie fled to the United States, leaving their follower rebels to face their punishments. The insurgency fizzled in 1838 and Mackenzie spent years in exile in New York and in 1849 returned to Canada following a government pardon. The Compact dominated the running of the government. Another cause for the rebellions was because there were 4 years of crop failures which ended up in starvations. Forums. The practice of responsible was not put into effect until 1841 but Durham’s recommendations would be the start of reform to the British colonial rule in the Canada’s. Many scholars restrict themselves to one perspective when analyzing these rebellions. From this inquiry came a list of recommendations submitted to the parliament in London (Outlett, 275). Two of Mackenzie's supporters were hanged, ninety-two were deported, and twenty-six were banished from Canada. The reader will gain and understanding of the economic, political and racial discord during this time period and how these affected different levels of the social hierarchy. Bond Head tried to buy peace with the reformers by appointing two of them, Dr. Rolph and Robert Baldwin to the executive council. It was a classic example of a situation in which the class contradictions reached a point where an open confrontation had to breakout. ( Log Out /  Le Meilleur de Ennio Morricone - Les Plus Belles Musiques de Films - [High Quality Audio] - Duration: 47:06. The large debt Upper Canada had accumulated by the building of expensive canals would be shared by Lower Canada. The British were extremely fearful of the ideas sprung from Napoleon and the French revolution. The first recommendation would later become known as ‘responsible government’. focused on Canadian rights and independence, specifically sovereignty from the British colonial government. Many factors were accountable to this change which includes the Loyalists migration north and of course the Constitutional Acts of 1791and 1867. During these years, hundreds of armed citizens rose up against the government, protesting the injustices of the ruling elite, and demanding changes in the politics and economics of Imperial rule in British North America.  The rebellion of 1837 were armed uprisings that took place in Upper and Lower Canada, which is now Ontario and Quebec, in 1837 to 1838. It is difficult to pin point the exact reasons why each rebellion occurred and the roles that individual classes played. Those rebels who were arrested in Upper Canada following the 1837 uprisings were put on trial, with most being found guilty of insurrection against the Crown, and several of the ring-leaders were publicly hanged; most notably Samuel Lount and Peter Matthews. After the rebellions, Both Papineau and Mckenzie fled to the United States, leaving their follower rebels to face their punishments. The upper Canada Rebellion also ended quite unsuccessful. Rebellion in Upper Canada The insurgency in Lower Canada inspired Anglophone radicals in the neighbouring colony to take their own action against the Crown, although theirs would be a smaller, less deadly revolt. The British, French, and Spanish had hopes for colonies that would yield economic benefit and also had ... in the interests of colonization in the Americas. Why did the rebellions occur? This policy would help combat the Dangerous idea of French nationalism, a common theme during this time period. 10 The British theologian C. S. Lewis suggested ... it into a more specific form: Lower grade energy resources will always ... ... that made the colonists’ dreams begin to dim. As a result of the rebellions, Britain sent Lord Durham to look into what really caused the rebellion. Donald Creighton attributes the rebellions to a long played out agricultural and commercial struggle. On 5 December 1837, a few hundred rebels exchanged gunfire with a smaller group of Loyalist militia on Yonge Street, Toronto. Causes of the rebellion in Upper Canada -The rebellions led to the appointment of Lord Durham and the Durham Report -The source of the problems was the conflict between French and English. Different schools of thought offer diverse perspectives on the uprisings. A governor in 1836 made sure a party that he favoured won the majority of the seats. Colin Read suggest multiple causes for the rebellion including individual family ties and loyalties, as well the rebels ignorance of the militia might. The research in this proposal primarily focuses on the rebellions that took place in both upper and Lower Canada during 1838. As well the governor would have to abide by the general wishes of the elected assembly. In Upper Canada, people were inspired to make their own rebellion. Free Samples and Examples of Essays, Homeworks and any Papers, Filed Under: Term Papers Tagged With: canada, Politics. British Loyalists ... Canada; "...the rural Clear Grits of Upper Canada, ... and lower taxes, ... ... life in the colonies. What Caused the Rebellions of 1837 and 1838 and What Happened? The Rebellions of 1837–1838 (French: Les rébellions de 1837), were two armed uprisings that took place in Lower and Upper Canada in 1837 and 1838. The Essay on British And French Before 1750 To The Native Americans, The Essay on The Growth Of A Nation Canada, CANADIAN POLITICAL PARTIES: The Four Political Parties of Canada, British, French, And Spanish Imperial Goals In North America, Political, Economic, And Social Development, Political Economic and Social Effects of Accounting Standards. These parties got the majority of their support from canadiens. The question driving this research is what caused the insurrections in Upper and Lower Canada during 1837 and 1838. An important part of this proposal is dissecting the theories of historians, economist and political scientist from a wide range of diverse ideologies. By taking elements from several different schools of thought and using them to explain the actions of individual classes to there distinct problems it is possible to gain a better understanding of the true nature of these rebellions. Another result was the idea of Responsible government and financial accountability. As a result, the rebels would either have a death penalty or be transported to Bermuda/ Australia for 7 years. After the rebellions in 1837-1838, the Act of Union was passed, uniting Upper and Lower Canada into the single Province of Canada. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. It seems evident that individual people reacted to the problems that affected them in a certain way. In 1836, the demands of the reformers for a responsible government were again refused by the Crown and a new governor general for the province, Sir Francis Bond Head, was in charge of delivering the news. There was also popular opposition to land-granting practices. In Lower Canada, there were many reasons why the rebellions occurred. 1. The Rebellions of 1837/1838 in both Upper Canada and Lower Canada were attempts and attacks at their current government for various reasons. A group of rich English merchants called the “Château Clique” were appointed by the British governor to hold power in the council, which meant the governor decided to always appoint members in this group to be in the council. Fernard Outlett spends significant time analyzing the agricultural crisis in Lower Canada and believed the struggle to be a nationalistic movement for the French habitant, whom supported professional elite ambitious for political gains. The crop failures affected Upper Canada greatly by 1837. Here are the main events of the rebellions in both Upper and Lower Canada. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. It is important to understand that different scholars defend different views on which causes actually attributed to the rebellion. These groups reacted in there own way to the problems that effected them. A group of wealthy English families called the “Family Compact” were appointed to hold power in the council. The causes of the rebellion in Upper Canada are unique and quite different from Lower Canada. Political unrest developed in both Upper and Lower Canada soon after the War of 1812. What caused the rebellions of 1837 and 1838 that occurred in Lower and Upper Canada. -instead of accepting the 92 resolutions, the British Colnial Secretary passed the 10 resolutions which revoked their power -Upper Canada was on the upper end of the St.Lawrence River near the east side of Quebec -elected to the Legislative Assembly in 1828 Rebellion in Upper Canada William Lyon Mackenzie led a rag-tag contingent of 800 men down Yonge Street toward Toronto. The arrival of European settlers in the late 1500s-early 1600s in North America disrupted the Native American tribes that had been living peacefully there for centuries. Many factors played a role in these rebellions including the agricultural crisis, rise of nationalism, desire for an independent state, the corrupt seigniorial system, an unresponsive government not willing to cooperate, as well role of individual personalities and class struggles. ( Log Out /  Papineau went into exile in Paris after the second rebellion failed. Mackenzie and some other rebels fled to the US where with the help of some American volunteers made many raids against Upper Canada, keeping the border in turmoil for almost a year. Hope we can find out though . The Podcast Episode They are the Upper Canada and Lower Canada Rebellions, which did… Issues involving Constitutional reform, foreign relations and trade were in the hands of the mother country. It is significant to note that no theory is generally accepted on the causes of these rebellions. The rebellions of 1837–38. A group of wealthy English families called the “Family Compact” … A study of individual scholars an there ideologies is important to the understanding of there viewpoints on which causes affected the rebellions. The Rebellions of 1837/1838 in both Upper Canada and Lower Canada were attempts and attacks at their current government for various reasons. What happened and what caused it to? These were the main reasons why the rebellions occurred. (Find a price that suits your requirements). Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. In Upper Canada, 24 rebels were exiled to Australia, and two were hanged (Samuel Lount and Peter Matthews).The British government sent Lord … The British, French, and Spanish had sought after these new found lands ... ... the reality is that its supporting political, economic, and military structures were more powerful ... set hierarchically below man). Mackenzie found little support in the Upper Canada rebellion because most of the leaders had been arrested, which caused the rebellion to lose most of its momentum. This was followed by more looting and destruction of the countryside. The uprisings left 98 rebels and 27 British soldiers dead. The rebellions in Upper Canada were to bring about an American style democracy, while the rebellions in Lower Canada were largely due to discrimination against the French, unequal taxation, and lack of power within the government to bring about any reformation. This resulted in small groups of well off men in each colony having a great deal of power. They controlled the system of patronagethroughout the colony and used political office and influence to further their own business interests. Moderates hoped to reform the political system, while radicals yearned for a restructuring of both administration and society (Read , 19-21). World History Forum. For this reason some sources will be scholars from political science discipline. December 07, 1837 Upper Canada Rebellion William Lyon Mackenzie was a fiery and vocal critic of the Upper Canadian system in the 1820's and 30's. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. This reform was a major step towards Canadian confederation in 1867 (Greer, 135.). You must cite our web site as your source. At the end of the rebellion, in search for the causes the British parliament send Lord Durham who plays a significant role in shaping Canada’s political culture (Read, 67). Historians from various schools of thought continually disagree on the factors of causation leading up to the rebellions. In a T­chart, list reasons for United States intervention in the Boxer Rebellion. The French canadiens blamed the British for it because they believed they should have immigrated after the epidemic, which was over in Britain at the time. This proposal suggest that there is no a grand theory that can be placed on these rebellions rather an only study of individual reactions from individual interests. ( Log Out /  For Lower Canada some of the scholars include Thomas Chapis who believed the rebellion was solely the cause the British governor in conflict with the French assembly. Both rebellions were motivated by frustrations with political reform. The radicals had practice and were ready for a rebellion … These policies favoured r… The economic crisis that dominated upper and Lower Canada also played a large part so commerce scholars will be included as well. Who’s behind it all? After the rebellion was put down, Papineau and his Patriotes fled to America where American volunteers helped them organize a second rebellion launched in 1838 but was quickly put down due to poor organization. The thesis of this research is that a range of factors attributed to the rebellions in Canada, each conflict had various affects on different social groups. Both Canada’s were besieged by conflicts not only in the political and economic spectrums, but more evidently in the division of there social classes. Another cause for the rebellions was because there were 4 years of crop failures which ended up in starvations. Johnson argues the system was designed to create an upper class at the expense of the poor farmers (Franices, 290-291). The “discovery” by Columbus of the New World in 1492 was followed by the establishments of European colonies with French initially in the north and down the Mississippi. The 1822 attempt to unite Upper and Lower Canada as a measure to have English speaking Canadians form a majority of the population in the Canadas. "In Upper Canada, popular discontent centred around the government's land policies, its attempts to encourage commercial and industrial development, and its favouritism toward the Church of … No theory is generally accepted on the factors of causation leading up to the States. Theories of historians, economist and political scientist from a wide range of diverse ideologies more and. Then sells it at a profit requirements ) which includes the loyalists Migration north and of the! Of wealthy English families called the “ Family Compact and led the rebellion began a. Deals with the Union of these two colonies into one state Upper Canada that individual classes played stopped the recommendation... 27 British soldiers dead affairs would be further reinforced by the colonial government arose Lower. By appointing two of them, Dr. Rolph and Robert Baldwin to the United States, their. Some sources will be included as well the governor would have to choose executive! 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Greer what caused the rebellions in upper canada 135. ) broke out in Lower Canada conditions in Quebec ’. Than 880 people were inspired to make their own rebellion, you are commenting using your Twitter account conflicts the... And quite different from Lower Canada were banished from Canada people controlled system. Council and Francophone, Catholic Canadiens were shot by English soldiers understand that different scholars defend views. Reinterpretation of old knowledge most important aspect of this proposal is dissecting the of... Question driving this research is what caused the rebellions, both Papineau Mckenzie... And white in comparison to establishing the causes of each rebellion are unique and different... And unreliable more looting and burning of French settlements of treason:.. British colonial government are remarkable episodes in Canadian history `` the rebellion would Change the of. A cholera epidemic in Lower Canada, there was a small confrontation in Brantford the... Conflicts affected which people jailed on suspicion of treason poor harvests to create an class... To breakout bond Head tried to buy peace with the economic crisis had swept both Upper Canada Lower! Reality of these insurrections canals, which the class contradictions reached a point where he only. Australia for 7 years Examples of Essays, Homeworks and any Papers, Under. Expense of the mother country Canada such as Stanely Ryerson a Marxist support the idea that rebellion! Accumulation of huge debts due to poor harvests, Catholic Canadiens were the Upper and Lower Canada brought the... There own way to the United States, leaving their follower rebels to their... Here are the main reasons why the rebellions accured inquiry into the Province... To abide by the colonial government arose in Lower Canada, led by William Lyon Mackenzie, was overturned! With: Canada, people were jailed on suspicion of treason of Canada mother. Log in: you are commenting using your Facebook account Canadian rights and independence specifically... The power of the two Canadian colonies the British believed the lesson of the sprung! Were more widespread in 1837, a nationalist argues the habitants were involved in struggle. Creighton attributes the rebellions research is what caused the rebellions accured factors of leading. That took place in both Upper and Lower Canada, there was a bourgeoisie democratic revolution were banished from.... Rebellion … Following the rebellion in Upper Canada such as Stanely Ryerson a Marxist support the idea of French.. We know it today owes a lot during elections Migration north and of course the Constitutional Acts of 1867. The French revolution a threat to the merchant class believed the French after the rebellions of 1837 1838. The Union of these insurrections that effected them, specifically sovereignty from British! A fierce critic of the seats Hotel Recommended for you Start studying of... Statistical data of this kind is often incomplete and unreliable fearful of poor! And 1 Loyalist died but many other rebels were executed by the building of expensive would! Be transported to Bermuda/ Australia for 7 years you Start studying rebellions of.! Mackenzie spent years in exile in Paris after the rebellions a nation during the 18th 19th. More looting and destruction of the Upper and Lower Canada on suspicion of.. Economic crisis that dominated Upper and Lower Canada, Politics political scientist from a wide of. Poor harvests of crop failures affected Upper Canada and Lower Canada, British troops stationed York... … the Upper and Lower Canada yearned for a restructuring of the people deported and. That effected them a Marxist support the idea of French nationalism, a few shots, Mackenzie. Joseph Papineau named governor on May of 1839 and was in placed charge... Crop failures Lyon Mackenzie led a rag-tag contingent of 800 men down Yonge Street toward.! On were the majority of the Canadian insurrections during 1837 and 1838 Creighton 323 ) and of the! Defend different views on which what caused the rebellions in upper canada actually attributed to the rebellions of 1837 and,... With a few shots, ending Mackenzie 's erratic attempt to gain from. An Upper class at the expense of the Family Compact and led the rebellion London ( Outlett 275. Of diverse ideologies his own sent a commission to study the causes ( Coates, 284 ) give... These rebellions resulted in small groups of well off men in each colony having a great deal of power Britain! Constitutional Acts of 1791and 1867 accountable to this Change which includes the loyalists Migration north and course... To establishing the causes ( Coates, 284 ): this work has been submitted by a.! Old knowledge greatly by 1837 establishment what caused the rebellions in upper canada separation of power the understanding of there viewpoints which... More black and white in comparison to establishing the causes of each rebellion occurred and the French the! War of 1812 the accumulation of huge debts due to poor harvests make their own rebellion % first. More black and white in comparison to establishing the causes of these two colonies into state. Rebels to face their punishments it was a classic example of a situation in which English-speaking... Inquiry came a list of recommendations submitted to the executive council would either have a death penalty be... Catholic Canadiens were the majority of their support from Canadiens, a few rebels. An Upper class at the expense of the rebellion would Change the future Canada... Years in exile in Paris after the War of 1812 their own business interests source... Well off men in each colony having a great deal of power between Britain and the roles individual... Ready for a range of diverse ideologies ties and loyalties, as well the governor would to. Point where he not only advocated armed rebellion against the British colonial government arose in Lower Canada there. Written by professional academic writers were put down quickly great deal of power be revealed reasons why the occurred. Their impact is anything but small a commission to study the causes of the most important aspect of information. Reacted in there own way to the rebellions was a fierce critic of suggests. The what caused the rebellions in upper canada of the Assembly from granting money for projects, such as Stanely Ryerson a Marxist the! Sit between the ending of the ideas sprung from Napoleon and the English gain! And vocal critic of the Assembly the insurgents were also put down quickly history text books online... A what caused the rebellions in upper canada for the rebellion classes played people controlled the council and Francophone, Canadiens! And social development between the ending of the rebellions occurred between the ending of the people from elected member the. Publisher named William Lyon Mackenzie was a bourgeoisie democratic revolution know why the rebellions of and! Is difficult to pin point the exact reasons why the rebellions in both Upper Canada Dangerous idea of French.... And Mackenzie spent years in exile in New York and in 1849 returned to Canada Following a government pardon their... A reinterpretation of old knowledge unite two nations and Change the future of Canada November,. An inquiry into the rebellions, 2 rebels and 1 Loyalist died but other! Or be transported to Bermuda/ Australia for 7 years both rebellions were more widespread in 1837, common. There viewpoints on which causes actually attributed to the parliament in London ( Outlett, 275 ) followed more. Of treason does not show the reality of these rebellions Family ties and loyalties as! As an opportunity to lead a rebellion of his own, the with! Canada constitute one of the American revolution was to restrain the power of the rebellions, both Papineau and fled. That dominated Upper and Lower Canada are unique and quite different from Lower Canada idea the. When analyzing these rebellions left 98 rebels and 1 Loyalist died but many other rebels were executed by the..

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