In the second step the segmented face image is aligned to account for face pose, image size and photographic properties, such as illumination and grayscale. , In 2018, researchers from the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) developed a technique that would allow them to match facial imagery obtained using a thermal camera with those in databases that were captured using a conventional camera. Researchers may use anywhere from several subjects to scores of subjects and a few hundred images to thousands of images. Optical character recognition or optical character reader (OCR) is the electronic or mechanical conversion of images of typed, handwritten or printed text into machine-encoded text, whether from a scanned document, a photo of a document, a scene-photo (for example the text on signs and billboards in a landscape photo) or from subtitle text superimposed on an image (for … Image recognition – classifying a detected object into different categories. The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to object recognition: Object recognition – technology in the field of computer vision for finding and identifying objects in an image or video sequence.  The database of the Dutch police currently contains over 2.2 million pictures of 1.3 million Dutch citizens.  Facial recognition systems attempt to identify a human face, which is three-dimensional and changes in appearance with lighting and facial expression, based on its two-dimensional image. First face detection is used to segment the face from the image background. , At the American football championship game Super Bowl XXXV in January 2001, police in Tampa Bay, Florida used Viisage face recognition software to search for potential criminals and terrorists in attendance at the event.  Tocumen International Airport operates an airport-wide surveillance system using hundreds of live face recognition cameras to identify wanted individuals passing through the airport. In 1997 the PCA Eigenface method of face recognition was improved upon using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to produce Fisherfaces. , While humans can recognize faces without much effort, facial recognition is a challenging pattern recognition problem in computing. , Experts fear that face recognition systems may actually be hurting citizens the police claims they are trying to protect. The FBI has also instituted its Next Generation Identification program to include face recognition, as well as more traditional biometrics like fingerprints and iris scans, which can pull from both criminal and civil databases. Image registration – comparing and combining two different views of the same object. This is one of the main obstacles of face recognition in surveillance systems. Some recent digital cameras use face detection for autofocus. According to the UK Information Commissioner's Office: "Scanning people's faces as they lawfully go about their daily lives, in order to identify them, is a potential threat to privacy that should concern us all. , Of the Rite Aid stores examined by Reuters in 2020, those in communities where people of color made up the largest racial or ethnic group were three times as likely to have the technology installed, raising concerns related to the substantial history of racial segregation and racial profiling in the United States. More than 14 million images have been hand-annotated by the project to indicate what objects are pictured and in at least one million of the images, bounding boxes are also provided.  All Canadian international airports use facial recognition as part of the Primary Inspection Kiosk program that compares a traveler face to their photo stored on the ePassport. 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